The Internet is developing very quickly, and new technologies and ongoing digitization are changing human life and the entire society. DNS, or Domain Name System, is one of the important elements of effective operation on the Internet.
DNS – what is it and how does it work?
First of all, it is worth noting that DNS comes from the words in English “Domain Name System”, which translates in Polish as the Domain Name System. Its main function is to make it possible to use domain addresses rather than IP names. This means that DNS is designed to translate unintelligible to most Internet users and difficult to remember strings of numbers into friendly names. The entire system is managed by two large organizations, i.e. the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority and The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. These two management organizations allocate different types of domains to other companies and specific countries. For example, in Poland, domains ending in “pl” are managed by the Scientific and Academic Computer Network. DNS works by translating a web address for a computer into a string of IP numbers. Therefore, servers have to search various Internet resources, and DNS connects to a specific server. Thanks to this, it is possible to send an address and then connect to a specific page. It is worth noting that the process has been described as simplified as possible, because in fact it is quite complicated. There are two main types of DNS servers, i.e .:
authoritative, whose main task is to store the configuration of domains,
recursive, whose task is to search for an IP address for a specific website
It is worth adding that in DNS, each domain is presented in the form of a record. There are different types of them, as well as their intended use.
What are the types of domains?
DNS is hierarchical as there are different categories of domains that are responsible for different functions. The following types of domains can be distinguished:
Top-Level Domain, i.e. domains located at the highest level in the hierarchy to which national and functional domains can be classified,
Second-level functional domains
The ending in the address depends on the specific type, for example “.eu” corresponds to the top-level domains, and “.edu.pl” to the second-level functional domains. Therefore, based on the website address, you can easily determine what type of domain it is. It is worth noting that the entire DNS system was created by scientists many years ago, in a period when few people used the Internet. That is why the developers did not foresee various dangers, such as the loss of data privacy, because the system did not require authorization mechanisms. In the 21st century, it is recognized that DNS can act in the service of security and protect against various threats, such as phishing and intrusive advertising.